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# Chapter 10  File, I/O and system operations

## 10.1  File names

### 10.1.1  file, dir

   $(file sequence) : File Sequence sequence : Sequence$(dir sequence) : Dir Sequence
sequence : Sequence


The file and dir functions define location-independent references to files and directories. In omake, the commands to build a target are executed in the target’s directory. Since there may be many directories in an omake project, the build system provides a way to construct a reference to a file in one directory, and use it in another without explicitly modifying the file name. The functions have the following syntax, where the name should refer to a file or directory.

For example, we can construct a reference to a file foo in the current directory.

   FOO = $(file foo) .SUBDIRS: bar  If the FOO variable is expanded in the bar subdirectory, it will expand to ../foo. These commands are often used in the top-level OMakefile to provide location-independent references to top-level directories, so that build commands may refer to these directories as if they were absolute.  ROOT =$(dir .)
LIB  = $(dir lib) BIN =$(dir bin)


Once these variables are defined, they can be used in build commands in subdirectories as follows, where $(BIN) will expand to the location of the bin directory relative to the command being executed.  install: hello cp hello$(BIN)


### 10.1.2  tmpfile

    $(tmpfile prefix) : File$(tmpfile prefix, suffix) : File
prefix : String
suffix : String


The tmpfile function returns the name of a fresh temporary file in the temporary directory.

### 10.1.3  in

   $(in dir, exp) : String Array dir : Dir exp : expression  The in function is closely related to the dir and file functions. It takes a directory and an expression, and evaluates the expression in that effective directory. For example, one common way to install a file is to define a symbol link, where the value of the link is relative to the directory where the link is created. The following commands create links in the $(LIB) directory.

    FOO = $(file foo) install: ln -s$(in $(LIB),$(FOO)) $(LIB)/foo  Note that the in function only affects the expansion of Node (File and Dir) values. ### 10.1.4 basename $(basename files) : String Sequence
files : String Sequence


The basename function returns the base names for a list of files. The basename is the filename with any leading directory components removed.

For example, the expression $(basename dir1/dir2/a.out /etc/modules.conf /foo.ml) evaluates to a.out modules.conf foo.ml. ### 10.1.5 dirname $(dirname files) : String Sequence
files : String Sequence


The dirname function returns the directory name for a list of files. The directory name is the filename with the basename removed. If a name does not have a directory part, the directory is “.”

For example, the expression $(dirname dir1\dir2\a.out /etc/modules.conf /foo.ml bar.ml) evaluates to dir1/dir2 /etc / .. Note: this function is different from the dirof function. The function dirname is simple a function over strings, while dirof is a function on filenames. ### 10.1.6 rootname $(rootname files) : String Sequence
files : String Sequence


The rootname function returns the root name for a list of files. The rootname is the filename with the final suffix removed.

For example, the expression $(rootname dir1/dir2/a.out /etc/a.b.c /foo.ml) evaluates to dir1/dir2/a /etc/a.b /foo. ### 10.1.7 dirof $(dirof files) : Dir Sequence
files : File Sequence


The dirof function returns the directory for each of the listed files.

For example, the expression $(dirof dir/dir2/a.out /etc/modules.conf /foo.ml) evaluates to the directories dir1/dir2 /etc /. ### 10.1.8 fullname $(fullname files) : String Sequence
files : File Sequence


The fullname function returns the pathname relative to the project root for each of the files or directories.

   $(absname files) : String Sequence files : File Sequence  The absname function returns the absolute pathname for each of the files or directories. ### 10.1.10 homename $(homename files) : String Sequence
files : File Sequence


The homename function returns the name of a file in tilde form, if possible. The unexpanded forms are computed lazily: the homename function will usually evaluate to an absolute pathname until the first tilde-expansion for the same directory.

### 10.1.11  suffix

   $(suffix files) : String Sequence files : StringSequence  The suffix function returns the suffixes for a list of files. If a file has no suffix, the function returns the empty string. For example, the expression $(suffix dir1/dir2/a.out /etc/a /foo.ml) evaluates to .out .ml.

## 10.2  Path search

   $(which files) : File Sequence files : String Sequence  The which function searches for executables in the current command search path, and returns file values for each of the commands. It is an error if a command is not found. ### 10.2.2 where The where function is similar to which, except it returns the list of all the locations of the given executable (in the order in which the corresponding directories appear in $PATH). In case a command is handled internally by the Shell object, the first string in the output will describe the command as a built-in function.

    % where echo
echo is a Shell object method (a built-in function)
/bin/echo


### 10.2.3  rehash

    rehash()


The rehash function resets all search paths.

   $(exists-in-path files) : String files : String Sequence  The exists-in-path function tests whether all executables are present in the current search path. ### 10.2.5 digest, digest-optional, digest-string $(digest files) : String Array
file : File Array
raises RuntimeException

$(digest-optional files) : String Array file : File Array$(digest-string s) : String
s : String


The digest and digest-optional functions compute MD5 digests of files. The digest function raises an exception if a file does no exist. The digest-optional returns false if a file does no exist. MD5 digests are cached.

### 10.2.6  find-in-path, find-in-path-optional

    $(find-in-path path, files) : File Array path : Dir Array files : String Array raises RuntimeException$(find-in-path-optional path, files) : File Array


The find-in-path function searches for the files in a search path. Only the tail of the filename is significant. The find-in-path function raises an exception if the file can’t be found. The find-in-path-optional function silently removes files that can’t be found.

### 10.2.7  digest-in-path, digest-in-path-optional

    $(digest-in-path path, files) : String/File Array path : Dir Array files : String Array raises RuntimeException$(digest-in-path-optional path, files) : String/File Array


The digest-in-path function searches for the files in a search path and returns the file and digest for each file. Only the tail of the filename is significant. The digest-in-path function raises an exception if the file can’t be found. The digest-in-path-optional function silently removes elements that can’t be found.

## 10.3  File stats

### 10.3.1  file-exists, target-exists, target-is-proper

   $(file-exists files) : String$(target-exists files) : String
$(target-is-proper files) : String files : File Sequence  The file-exists function checks whether the files listed exist. The target-exists function is similar to the file-exists function. However, it returns true if the file exists or if it can be built by the current project. The target-is-proper returns true only if the file can be generated in the current project. ### 10.3.2 stat-reset $(stat-reset files) : String
files : File Sequence


OMake uses a stat-cache. The stat-reset function reset the stat information for the given files, forcing the stat information to be recomputed the next time it is requested.

### 10.3.3  filter-exists, filter-targets, filter-proper-targets

   $(filter-exists files) : File Sequence$(filter-targets files) : File Sequence
$(filter-proper-targets) : File Sequence files : File Sequence  The filter-exists, filter-targets, and filter-proper-targets functions remove files from a list of files. • filter-exists: the result is the list of files that exist. • filter-targets: the result is the list of files either exist, or can be built by the current project. • filter-proper-targets: the result is the list of files that can be built in the current project. ##### Creating a “distclean” target One way to create a simple “distclean” rule that removes generated files from the project is by removing all files that can be built in the current project. CAUTION: you should be careful before you do this. The rule removes any file that can potentially be reconstructed. There is no check to make sure that the commands to rebuild the file would actually succeed. Also, note that no file outside the current project will be deleted.  .PHONY: distclean distclean: rm$(filter-proper-targets $(ls R, .))  If you use CVS, you may wish to utilize the cvs_realclean program that is distributed with OMake in order to create a “distclean” rule that would delete all the files thare are not known to CVS. For example, if you already have a more traditional “clean” target defined in your project, and if you want the “distclean” rule to be interactive by default, you can write the following:  if$(not $(defined FORCE_REALCLEAN)) FORCE_REALCLEAN = false export distclean: clean cvs_realclean$(if $(FORCE_REALCLEAN), -f) -i .omakedb -i .omakedb.lock  You can add more files that you want to always keep (such as configuration files) with the -i option. Similarly, if you use Subversion, you utilize the build/svn_realclean.om script that comes with OMake:  if$(not $(defined FORCE_REALCLEAN)) FORCE_REALCLEAN = false export open build/svn_realclean distclean: clean svn_realclean$(if $(FORCE_REALCLEAN), -f) -i .omakedb -i .omakedb.lock  See also the dependencies-proper function for an alternate method for removing intermediate files. ### 10.3.4 find-targets-in-path, find-targets-in-path-optional $(find-targets-in-path path files) : File Array
$(find-targets-in-path-optional path, files) : File Array path : Dir Array files : File Sequence  The find-target-in-path function searches for targets in the search path. For each file file in the file list, the path is searched sequentially for a directory dir such that the target dir/file exists. If so, the file dir/file is returned. For example, suppose you are building a C project, and project contains a subdirectory src/ containing only the files fee.c and foo.c. The following expression evaluates to the files src/fee.o src/foo.o even if the files have not already been built. $(find-targets-in-path lib src, fee.o foo.o)

# Evaluates to
src/fee.o src/foo.o


The find-targets-in-path function raises an exception if the file can’t be found. The find-targets-in-path-optional function silently removes targets that can’t be found.

    $(find-targets-in-path-optional lib src, fee.o foo.o fum.o) # Evaluates to src/fee.o src/foo.o  ### 10.3.5 find-ocaml-targets-in-path-optional The find-ocaml-targets-in-path-optional function is very similar to the find-targets-in-path-optional one, except an OCaml-style search is used, where for every element of the search path and for every name being searched for, first the uncapitalized version is tried and if it is not buildable, then the capitalized version is tried next. ### 10.3.6 file-sort $(file-sort order, files) : File Sequence
order : String
files : File Sequence


The file-sort function sorts a list of filenames by build order augmented by a set of sort rules. Sort rules are declared using the .ORDER target. The .BUILDORDER defines the default order.

$(file-sort <order>, <files>) For example, suppose we have the following set of rules.  a: b c b: d c: d .DEFAULT: a b c d echo$(file-sort .BUILDORDER, a b c d)


In the case, the sorter produces the result d b c a. That is, a target is sorted after its dependencies. The sorter is frequently used to sort files that are to be linked by their dependencies (for languages where this matters).

There are three important restrictions to the sorter:

• The sorter can be used only within a rule body. The reason for this is that all dependencies must be known before the sort is performed.
• The sorter can only sort files that are buildable in the current project.
• The sorter will fail if the dependencies are cyclic.

#### 10.3.6.1  sort rule

It is possible to further constrain the sorter through the use of sort rules. A sort rule is declared in two steps. The target must be listed as an .ORDER target; and then a set of sort rules must be given. A sort rule defines a pattern constraint.

   .ORDER: .MYORDER

.MYORDER: %.foo: %.bar
.MYORDER: %.bar: %.baz

.DEFAULT: a.foo b.bar c.baz d.baz

## 10.4  Globbing and file listings

OMake commands are “glob-expanded” before being executed. That is, names may contain patterns that are expanded to sequences of file and directory names. The syntax follows the standard bash(1), csh(1), syntax, with the following rules.

• A pathname is a sequence of directory and file names separated by one of the / or \ characters. For example, the following pathnames refer to the same file: /home/jyh/OMakefile and /home\jyh/OMakefile.
• Glob-expansion is performed on the components of a path. If a path contains occurrences of special characters (listed below), the path is viewed as a pattern to be matched against the actual files in the system. The expansion produces a sequence of all file/directory names that match.

For the following examples, suppose that a directory /dir contains files named a, -a, a.b, and b.c.

*
Matches any sequence of zero-or-more characters. For example, the pattern /dir/a* expands to /dir/a /dir/aa /dir/a.b.
?
Matches exactly one character. The pattern /dir/?a expands the filename /dir/-a.
[...]
Square brackets denote character sets and ranges in the ASCII character set. The pattern may contain individual characters c or character ranges c1-c2. The pattern matches any of the individual characters specified, or any characters in the range. A leading “hat” inverts the send of the pattern. To specify a pattern that contains the literal characters -, the - should occur as the first character in the range.
 Pattern Expansion /dir/[a-b]* /dir/a /dir/a.b /dir/b.c /dir/[-a-b]* /dir/a /dir/-a /dir/a.b /dir/b.c /dir/[-a]* /dir/a /dir/-a /dir/a.b
{s1,...,sN}
Braces indicate brace-expansion. The braces delimit a sequence of strings separated by commas. Given N strings, the result produces N copies of the pattern, one for each of the strings si.
 Pattern Expansion a{b,c,d} ab ac ad a{b{c,d},e} abc abd ae a{?{[A-Z],d},*} a?[A-Z] a?d a*

The tilde is used to specify home directories. Depending on your system, these might be possible expansions.
 Pattern Expansion ~jyh /home/jyh ~bob/*.c c:\Documents and Settings\users\bob

The \ character is both a pathname separator and an escape character. If followed by a special glob character, the \ changes the sense of the following character to non-special status. Otherwise, \ is viewed as a pathname separator.
 Pattern Expansion ~jyh/\* ~jyh/* (* is literal) /dir/\[a-z? /dir/[a-z? ([ is literal, ? is a pattern). c:\Program Files\[A-z] c:\Program Files[A-z]*

Note that the final case might be considered to be ambiguous (where \ should be viewed as a pathname separator, not as an escape for the subsequent [ character. If you want to avoid this ambiguity on Win32, you should use the forward slash / even for Win32 pathnames (the / is translated to \ in the output).

 Pattern Expansion c:/Program Files/[A-z]* c:\Program Files\WindowsUpdate ...

### 10.4.1  glob

   $(glob strings) : Node Array strings : String Sequence$(glob options, strings) : Node Array
options : String
strings : String Sequence


The glob function performs glob-expansion.

The . and .. entries are always ignored.

The options are:

b
Do not perform csh(1)-style brace expansion.
e
The \ character does not escape special characters.
n
If an expansion fails, return the expansion literally instead of aborting.
i
If an expansion fails, it expands to nothing.
.
Allow wildcard patterns to match files beginning with a .
A
Return all files, including files that begin with a .
F
Match only normal files (any file that is not a directory).
D
Match only directory files.
C
Ignore files according to cvs(1) rules.
P
Include only proper subdirectories.

In addition, the following variables may be defined that affect the behavior of glob.

GLOB_OPTIONS
A string containing default options.
GLOB_IGNORE
A list of shell patterns for filenames that glob should ignore.
GLOB_ALLOW
A list of shell patterns. If a file does not match a pattern in GLOB_ALLOW, it is ignored.

The returned files are sorted by name.

### 10.4.2  ls

   $(ls files) : Node Array files : String Sequence$(ls options, files) : Node Array
files : String Sequence


The ls function returns the filenames in a directory.

The . and .. entries are always ignored. The patterns are shell-style patterns, and are glob-expanded.

The options include all of the options to the glob function, plus the following.

R
Perform a recursive listing.

The GLOB_ALLOW and GLOB_IGNORE variables can be defined to control the globbing behavior. The returned files are sorted by name.

### 10.4.3  subdirs

   $(subdirs dirs) : Dir Array dirs : String Sequence$(subdirs options, dirs) : Dir Array
options : String
dirs : String Sequence


The subdirs function returns all the subdirectories of a list of directories, recursively.

The possible options are the following:

A
Return directories that begin with a .
C
Ignore files according to .cvsignore rules.
P
Include only proper subdirectories.

## 10.5  Filesystem operations

### 10.5.1  mkdir

   mkdir(mode, node...)
mode : Int
node : Node
raises RuntimeException

mkdir(node...)
node : Node
raises RuntimeException


The mkdir function creates a directory, or a set of directories. The following options are supported.

-m mode
Specify the permissions of the created directory.
-p
Create parent directories if they do not exist.
Interpret the remaining names literally.

### 10.5.2  Stat

The Stat object represents an information about a filesystem node, as returned by the stat and lstat functions. It contains the following fields.

dev
: the device number.
ino
: the inode number.
kind
: the kind of the file, one of the following: REG (regular file), DIR (directory), CHR (character device), BLK (block device), LNK (symbolic link), FIFO (named pipe), SOCK (socket).
perm
: access rights, represented as an integer.
uid
: user id of the owner.
gid
: group id of the file’s group.
rdev
: device minor number.
size
: size in bytes.
atime
: last access time, as a floating point number.
mtime
: last modification time, as a floating point number.
ctime
: last status change time, as a floating point number.

Not all of the fields will have meaning on all operating systems.

### 10.5.3  stat, lstat

    $(stat node...) : Stat node : Node or Channel$(lstat node...) : Stat
node : Node or Channel
raises RuntimeException


The stat functions return file information. If the file is a symbolic link, the stat function refers to the destination of the link; the lstat function refers to the link itself.

   $(unlink file...) file : File #(rm file...) file : File$(rmdir dir...)
dir : Dir
raises RuntimeException


The unlink and rm functions remove a file. The rmdir function removes a directory.

The following options are supported for rm and rmdir.

-f
ignore nonexistent files, never prompt.
-i
prompt before removal.
-r
remove the contents of directories recursively.
-v
explain what is going on.
the rest of the values are interpreted literally.

### 10.5.5  rename

    rename(old, new)
old : Node
new : Node
mv(nodes... dir)
nodes : Node Sequence
dir   : Dir
cp(nodes... dir)
nodes : Node Sequence
dir   : Dir
raises RuntimeException


The rename function changes the name of a file or directory named old to new.

The mv function is similar, but if new is a directory, and it exists, then the files specified by the sequence are moved into the directory. If not, the behavior of mv is identical to rename. The cp function is similar, but the original file is not removed.

The mv and cp functions take the following options.

-f
Do not prompt before overwriting.
-i
Prompt before overwriting.
-v
Explain what it happening.
-r
Copy the contents of directories recursively.
Interpret the remaining arguments literally.

   link(src, dst)
src : Node
dst : Node
raises RuntimeException


The link function creates a hard link named dst to the file or directory src.

Hard links may work under Win32 when NTFS is used.

Normally, only the superuser can create hard links to directories.

   symlink(src, dst)
src : Node
dst : Node
src : String
dst : Node
raises RuntimeException


The symlink function creates a symbolic link dst that points to the src file.

For symlink, the link name is computed relative to the target directory. For example, the expression $(symlink a/b, c/d) creates a link named c/d -> ../a/b. The function symlink-raw performs no translation. The symbolic link is set to the src string. Symbolic links are not supported in Win32. Consider using the ln-or-cp Shell alias for cross-platform portable linking/copying. ### 10.5.8 readlink, readlink-raw $(readlink node...) : Node
node : Node
$(readlink-raw node...) : String node : Node  The readlink function reads the value of a symbolic link. ### 10.5.9 chmod  chmod(mode, dst...) mode : Int dst : Node or Channel chmod(mode dst...) mode : String dst : Node Sequence raises RuntimeException  The chmod function changes the permissions of the targets. Options: -v Explain what is happening. -r Change files and directories recursively. -f Continue on errors. Interpret the remaining argument literally. ### 10.5.10 chown  chown(uid, gid, node...) uid : Int gid : Int node : Node or Channel chown(uid, node...) uid : Int node : Node or Channel raises RuntimeException  The chown function changes the user and group id of the file. If the gid is not specified, it is not changed. If either id is -1, that id is not changed. ### 10.5.11 utimes  utimes(atime, mtime, node...) atime : Float mtime : Float node : Node raises RuntimeException  The utimes function changes the access and modification times of the files. ### 10.5.12 truncate  truncate(length, node...) length : Int node : Node or Channel raises RuntimeException  The truncate function truncates a file to the given length. ### 10.5.13 umask $(umask mode) : Int
mode : Int
raises RuntimeException


Sets the file mode creation mask. The previous mask is returned. This value is not scoped, changes have global effect.

## 10.6  vmount

### 10.6.1  vmount

    vmount(src, dst)
src, dst : Dir
vmount(flags, src, dst)
flags : String
src, dst : Dir


“Mount” the src directory on the dst directory. This is a virtual mount, changing the behavior of the $(file ...) function. When the $(file str) function is used, the resulting file is taken relative to the src directory if the file exists. Otherwise, the file is relative to the current directory.

The main purpose of the vmount function is to support multiple builds with separate configurations or architectures.

The options are as follows.

l
Create symbolic links to files in the src directory.
c
Copy files from the src directory.

Mount operations are scoped.

    add-project-directories(dirs)
dirs : Dir Array


Add the directories to the set of directories that omake considers to be part of the project. This is mainly used to avoid omake complaining that the current directory is not part of the project.

### 10.6.3  remove-project-directories

    remove-project-directories(dirs)
dirs : Dir Array


Removed the directories from the set of directories that omake considers to be part of the project. This is mainly used to cancel a .SUBDIRS from including a directory if it is determined that the directory does not need to be compiled.

## 10.7  File predicates

### 10.7.1  test

   test(exp) : Bool
exp : String Sequence


The expression grammar is as follows:

• ! expression : expression is not true
• expression1 -a expression2 : both expressions are true
• expression1 -o expression2 : at least one expression is true
• ( expression ) : expression is true

The base expressions are:

• -n string : The string has nonzero length
• -z string : The string has zero length
• string = string : The strings are equal
• string != string : The strings are not equal
• int1 -eq int2 : The integers are equal
• int1 -ne int2 : The integers are not equal
• int1 -gt int2 : int1 is larger than int2
• int1 -ge int2 : int2 is not larger than int1
• int1 -lt int2 : int1 is smaller than int2
• int1 -le int2 : int1 is not larger than int2
• file1 -ef file2 : On Unix, file1 and file2 have the same device and inode number. On Win32, file1 and file2 have the same name.
• file1 -nt file2 : file1 is newer than file2
• file1 -ot file2 : file1 is older than file2
• -b file : The file is a block special file
• -c file : The file is a character special file
• -d file : The file is a directory
• -e file : The file exists
• -f file : The file is a normal file
• -g file : The set-group-id bit is set on the file
• -G file : The file’s group is the current effective group
• -h file : The file is a symbolic link (also -L)
• -k file : The file’s sticky bit is set
• -L file : The file is a symbolic link (also -h)
• -O file : The file’s owner is the current effective user
• -p file : The file is a named pipe
• -r file : The file is readable
• -s file : The file has a non-zero size
• -S file : The file is a socket
• -u file : The set-user-id bit is set on the file
• -w file : The file is writable
• -x file : The file is executable

A string is any sequence of characters; leading - characters are allowed.

An int is a string that can be interpreted as an integer. Unlike traditional versions of the test program, the leading characters may specify an arity. The prefix 0b means the numbers is in binary; the prefix 0o means the number is in octal; the prefix 0x means the number is in hexadecimal. An int can also be specified as -l string, which evaluates to the length of the string.

A file is a string that represents the name of a file.

The syntax mirrors that of the test(1) program. If you are on a Unix system, the man page explains more. Here are some examples.

    # Create an empty file
osh> touch foo
# Is the file empty?
osh> test(-e foo)
- : true
osh> test(! -e foo)
- : false
# Create another file
osh> touch boo
osh> test(boo -nt foo)
- : true
# A more complex query
# boo is newer than foo, and foo is empty
osh> test($$boo -nt foo$$ -a -e foo)
- : true


### 10.7.2  find

   find(exp) : Node Array
exp : String Sequence


The find function searches a directory recursively, returning the files for which the expression evaluates to true.

The expression argument uses the same syntax as the test function, with the following exceptions.

1. The expression may begin with a directory. If not specified, the current directory is searched.
2. The {} string expands to the current file being examined.

The syntax of the expression is the same as test, with the following additions.

• -name string : The current file matches the glob expression (see Section 10.4).
• -regex string : The current file matches the regular expression

The find function performs a recursive scan of all subdirectories. The following call is being run from the root of the omake source directory.

    osh> find(. -name fo* )
- : <array
/home/jyh/.../omake/mk/.svn/format
/home/jyh/.../omake/RPM/.svn/format
...
/home/jyh/.../omake/osx_resources/installer_files/.svn/format>


Another example, listing only those files that are normal files or symbolic links.

    osh> find(. -name fo* -a $$-f {} -o -L {}$$)
- : <array
/home/jyh/.../omake/mk/.svn/format
/home/jyh/.../omake/RPM/.svn/format
...
/home/jyh/.../omake/osx_resources/installer_files/.svn/format>


## 10.8  IO functions

### 10.8.1  Standard channels

The following variables define the standard channels.

##### stdin

stdin : InChannel


The standard input channel, open for reading.

##### stdout

stdout : OutChannel


The standard output channel, open for writing.

##### stderr

stderr : OutChannel


The standard error channel, open for writing.

### 10.8.2  open-in-string

The open-in-string treats a string as if it were a file and returns a channel for reading.

$(out-contents chan) : String chan : OutChannel  ### 10.8.4 fopen The fopen function opens a file for reading or writing. $(fopen file, mode) : Channel
file : File
mode : String


The file is the name of the file to be opened. The mode is a combination of the following characters.

r
Open the file for reading; it is an error if the file does not exist.
w
Open the file for writing; the file is created if it does not exist.
a
Open the file in append mode; the file is created if it does not exist.
+
Open the file for both reading and writing.
t
Open the file in text mode (default).
b
Open the file in binary mode.
n
Open the file in nonblocking mode.
x
Fail if the file already exists.

Binary mode is not significant on Unix systems, where text and binary modes are equivalent.

$(input-line channel) : String channel : InChannel amount : Int raises RuntimeException  The read function reads up to amount bytes from an input channel, and returns the data that was read. The input-line function reads a line from the file and returns the line read, without the line terminator. If an end-of-file condition is reached, both functions raise a RuntimeException exception. ### 10.8.7 write $(write channel, buffer, offset, amount) : String
channel : OutChannel
buffer  : String
offset  : Int
amount  : Int
$(write channel, buffer) : String channel : OutChannel buffer : String raises RuntimeException  In the 4-argument form, the write function writes bytes to the output channel channel from the buffer, starting at position offset. Up to amount bytes are written. The function returns the number of bytes that were written. The 3-argument form is similar, but the offset is 0. In the 2-argument form, the offset is 0, and the amount if the length of the buffer. If an end-of-file condition is reached, the function raises a RuntimeException exception. ### 10.8.8 lseek $(lseek channel, offset, whence) : Int
channel : Channel
offset  : Int
whence  : String
raises RuntimeException


The lseek function repositions the offset of the channel channel according to the whence directive, as follows:

SEEK_SET
The offset is set to offset.
SEEK_CUR
The offset is set to its current position plus offset bytes.
SEEK_END
The offset is set to the size of the file plus offset bytes.

The lseek function returns the new position in the file.

### 10.8.9  rewind

   rewind(channel...)
channel : Channel


The rewind function set the current file position to the beginning of the file.

    $(tell channel...) : Int... channel : Channel raises RuntimeException  The tell function returns the current position of the channel. ### 10.8.11 flush $(flush channel...)
channel : OutChannel


The flush function can be used only on files that are open for writing. It flushes all pending data to the file.

   $(channel-name channel...) : String channel : Channel  The channel-name function returns the name that is associated with the channel. ### 10.8.13 dup $(dup channel) : Channel
channel : Channel
raises RuntimeException


The dup function returns a new channel referencing the same file as the argument.

### 10.8.14  dup2

   dup2(channel1, channel2)
channel1 : Channel
channel2 : Channel
raises RuntimeException


The dup2 function causes channel2 to refer to the same file as channel1.

### 10.8.15  set-nonblock

   set-nonblock-mode(mode, channel...)
channel : Channel
mode : String


The set-nonblock-mode function sets the nonblocking flag on the given channel. When IO is performed on the channel, and the operation cannot be completed immediately, the operations raises a RuntimeException.

### 10.8.16  set-close-on-exec-mode

   set-close-on-exec-mode(mode, channel...)
channel : Channel
mode : String
raises RuntimeException


The set-close-on-exec-mode function sets the close-on-exec flags for the given channels. If the close-on-exec flag is set, the channel is not inherited by child processes. Otherwise it is.

   $(pipe) : Pipe raises RuntimeException  The pipe function creates a Pipe object, which has two fields. The read field is a channel that is opened for reading, and the write field is a channel that is opened for writing. ### 10.8.18 mkfifo  mkfifo(mode, node...) mode : Int node : Node  The mkfifo function creates a named pipe. ### 10.8.19 select $(select rfd..., wfd..., wfd..., timeout) : Select
rfd : InChannel
wfd : OutChannel
efd : Channel
timeout : float
raises RuntimeException


The select function polls for possible IO on a set of channels. The rfd are a sequence of channels for reading, wfd are a sequence of channels for writing, and efd are a sequence of channels to poll for error conditions. The timeout specifies the maximum amount of time to wait for events.

On successful return, select returns a Select object, which has the following fields:

An array of channels available for reading.
write
An array of channels available for writing.
error
An array of channels on which an error has occurred.

### 10.8.20  lockf

    lockf(channel, command, len)
channel : Channel
command : String
len : Int
raises RuntimeException


The lockf function places a lock on a region of the channel. The region starts at the current position and extends for len bytes.

The possible values for command are the following.

F_ULOCK
Unlock a region.
F_LOCK
Lock a region for writing; block if already locked.
F_TLOCK
Lock a region for writing; fail if already locked.
F_TEST
Test a region for other locks.
F_RLOCK
F_TRLOCK

The InetAddr object describes an Internet address. It contains the following fields.

String: the Internet address.
port
Int: the port number.

### 10.8.22  Host

A Host object contains the following fields.

name
String: the name of the host.
aliases
String Array: other names by which the host is known.
String: the preferred socket domain.
InetAddr Array: an array of Internet addresses belonging to the host.

   $(gethostbyname host...) : Host... host : String raises RuntimeException  The gethostbyname function returns a Host object for the specified host. The host may specify a domain name or an Internet address. ### 10.8.24 Protocol The Protocol object represents a protocol entry. It has the following fields. name String: the canonical name of the protocol. aliases String Array: aliases for the protocol. proto Int: the protocol number. ### 10.8.25 getprotobyname $(getprotobyname name...) : Protocol...
name : Int or String
raises RuntimeException


The getprotobyname function returns a Protocol object for the specified protocol. The name may be a protocol name, or a protocol number.

### 10.8.26  Service

The Service object represents a network service. It has the following fields.

name
String: the name of the service.
aliases
String Array: aliases for the service.
port
Int: the port number of the service.
proto
Protocol: the protocol for the service.

   $(getservbyname service...) : Service... service : String or Int raises RuntimeException  The getservbyname function gets the information for a network service. The service may be specified as a service name or number. ### 10.8.28 socket $(socket domain, type, protocol) : Channel
domain : String
type : String
protocol : String
raises RuntimeException


The socket function creates an unbound socket.

The possible values for the arguments are as follows.

The domain may have the following values.

PF_UNIX or unix
Unix domain, available only on Unix systems.
PF_INET or inet
Internet domain, IPv4.
PF_INET6 or inet6
Internet domain, IPv6.

The type may have the following values.

SOCK_STREAM or stream
Stream socket.
SOCK_DGRAM or dgram
Datagram socket.
SOCK_RAW or raw
Raw socket.
SOCK_SEQPACKET or seqpacket
Sequenced packets socket

The protocol is an Int or String that specifies a protocol in the protocols database.

### 10.8.29  bind

   bind(socket, host, port)
socket : InOutChannel
host : String
port : Int
bind(socket, file)
socket : InOutChannel
file : File
raise RuntimeException


The bind function binds a socket to an address.

The 3-argument form specifies an Internet connection, the host specifies a host name or IP address, and the port is a port number.

The 2-argument form is for Unix sockets. The file specifies the filename for the address.

### 10.8.30  listen

   listen(socket, requests)
socket : InOutChannel
requests : Int
raises RuntimeException


The listen function sets up the socket for receiving up to requests number of pending connection requests.

$(gets channel) : String channel : InChannel or File raises RuntimeException  The gets function returns the next line from a file. The function returns the empty string if the end of file has been reached. The line terminator is removed. ### 10.8.35 fgets $(fgets) : String
$(fgets channel) : String channel : InChannel or File raises RuntimeException  The fgets function returns the next line from a file that has been opened for reading with fopen. The function returns the empty string if the end of file has been reached. The returned string is returned as literal data. The line terminator is not removed. ## 10.9 Printing functions Output is printed with the print and println functions. The println function adds a terminating newline to the value being printed, the print function does not.  fprint(<file>, <string>) print(<string>) eprint(<string>) fprintln(<file>, <string>) println(<string>) eprintln(<string>)  The fprint functions print to a file that has been previously opened with fopen. The print functions print to the standard output channel, and the eprint functions print to the standard error channel. ## 10.10 Value printing functions Values can be printed with the printv and printvln functions. The printvln function adds a terminating newline to the value being printed, the printv function does not.  fprintv(<file>, <string>) printv(<string>) eprintv(<string>) fprintvln(<file>, <string>) printvln(<string>) eprintvln(<string>)  The fprintv functions print to a file that has been previously opened with fopen. The printv functions print to the standard output channel, and the eprintv functions print to the standard error channel. ### 10.10.1 Miscellaneous functions #### 10.10.1.1 set-channel-line  set-channel-line(channel, filename, line) channel : Channel filename : File line : int  Set the line number information for the channel. ## 10.11 Higher-level IO functions ### 10.11.1 Regular expressions Many of the higher-level functions use regular expressions. Regular expressions are defined by strings with syntax nearly identical to awk(1). Strings may contain the following character constants. • \\ : a literal backslash. • \a : the alert character ^G. • \b : the backspace character ^H. • \f : the formfeed character ^L. • \n : the newline character ^J. • \r : the carriage return character ^M. • \t : the tab character ^I. • \v : the vertical tab character. • \xhh... : the character represented by the string of hexadecimal digits h. All valid hexadecimal digits following the sequence are considered to be part of the sequence. • \ddd : the character represented by 1, 2, or 3 octal digits. Regular expressions are defined using the special characters .\^$[(){}*?+.

• c : matches the literal character c if c is not a special character.
• \c : matches the literal character c, even if c is a special character.
• . : matches any character, including newline.
• ^ : matches the beginning of a line.
• $ : matches the end of line. • [abc...] : matches any of the characters abc... • [^abc...] : matches any character except abc... • r1|r2 : matches either r1 or r2. • r1r2 : matches r1 and then r2. • r+ : matches one or more occurrences of r. • r* : matches zero or more occurrences of r. • r? : matches zero or one occurrence of r. • (r) : parentheses are used for grouping; matches r. • $$r$$ : also defines grouping, but the expression matched within the parentheses is available to the output processor through one of the variables $1, $2, ... • r{n} : matches exactly n occurrences of r. • r{n,} : matches n or more occurrences of r. • r{n,m} : matches at least n occurrences of r, and no more than m occurrences. • \y: matches the empty string at either the beginning or end of a word. • \B: matches the empty string within a word. • \<: matches the empty string at the beginning of a word. • \>: matches the empty string at the end of a word. • \w: matches any character in a word. • \W: matches any character that does not occur within a word. • \: matches the empty string at the beginning of a file. • \': matches the empty string at the end of a file. Character classes can be used to specify character sequences abstractly. Some of these sequences can change depending on your LOCALE. • [[:alnum:]] Alphanumeric characters. • [[:alpha:]] Alphabetic characters. • [[:lower:]] Lowercase alphabetic characters. • [[:upper:]] Uppercase alphabetic characters. • [[:cntrl:]] Control characters. • [[:digit:]] Numeric characters. • [[:xdigit:]] Numeric and hexadecimal characters. • [[:graph:]] Characters that are printable and visible. • [[:print:]] Characters that are printable, whether they are visible or not. • [[:punct:]] Punctuation characters. • [[:blank:]] Space or tab characters. • [[:space:]] Whitespace characters. ### 10.11.2 cat  cat(files) : Sequence files : File or InChannel Sequence  The cat function concatenates the output from multiple files and returns it as a string. ### 10.11.3 grep  grep(pattern) : String # input from stdin, default options pattern : String grep(pattern, files) : String # default options pattern : String files : File Sequence grep(options, pattern, files) : String options : String pattern : String files : File Sequence  The grep function searches for occurrences of a regular expression pattern in a set of files, and prints lines that match. This is like a highly-simplified version of grep(1). The options are: q If specified, the output from grep is not displayed. h If specified, output lines will not include the filename (default, when only one input file is given). n If specified, output lines include the filename (default, when more than one input file is given). v If specified, search for lines without a match instead of lines with a match, The pattern is a regular expression. If successful (grep found a match), the function returns true. Otherwise, it returns false. ### 10.11.4 scan  scan(input-files) case string1 body1 case string2 body2 ... default bodyd  The scan function provides input processing in command-line form. The function takes file/filename arguments. If called with no arguments, the input is taken from stdin. If arguments are provided, each specifies an InChannel, or the name of a file for input. Output is always to stdout. The scan function operates by reading the input one line at a time, and processing it according to the following algorithm. For each line, the record is first split into fields, and the fields are bound to the variables $1, $2, .... The variable $0 is defined to be the entire line, and $* is an array of all the field values. The $(NF) variable is defined to be the number of fields.

Next, a case expression is selected. If string_i matches the token $1, then body_i is evaluated. If the body ends in an export, the state is passed to the next clause. Otherwise the value is discarded. For example, here is an scan function that acts as a simple command processor.  calc() = i = 0 scan(script.in) case print println($i)
case inc
i = $(add$i, 1)
export
case dec
i = $(sub$i, 1)
export
i = $(add$i, $2) export default eprintln($"Unknown command: $1")  The scan function also supports several options.  scan(options, files) ...  A Parse each line as an argument list, where arguments may be quoted. For example, the following line has three words, “ls”, “-l”, “Program Files”.  ls -l "Program Files"  O Parse each line using white space as the separator, using the usual OMake algorithm for string parsing. This is the default. x Once each line is split, reduce each word using the hex representation. This is the usual hex representation used in URL specifiers, so the string “Program Files” may be alternately represented in the form ProgramProgram+Files. Note, if you want to redirect the output to a file, the easiest way is to redefine the stdout variable. The stdout variable is scoped the same way as other variables, so this definition does not affect the meaning of stdout outside the calc function.  calc() = stdout =$(fopen script.out, w)
scan(script.in)
...
close($(stdout))  ### 10.11.5 awk  awk(input-files) case pattern1: body1 case pattern2: body2 ... default: bodyd  or  awk(options, input-files) case pattern1: body1 case pattern2: body2 ... default: bodyd  The awk function provides input processing similar to awk(1), but more limited. The input-files argument is a sequence of values, each specifies an InChannel, or the name of a file for input. If called with no options and no file arguments, the input is taken from stdin. Output is always to stdout. The variables RS and FS define record and field separators as regular expressions. The default value of RS is the regular expression \r|\n|\r\n. The default value of FS is the regular expression [ \t]+. The awk function operates by reading the input one record at a time, and processing it according to the following algorithm. For each line, the record is first split into fields using the field separator FS, and the fields are bound to the variables $1, $2, .... The variable $0 is defined to be the entire line, and $* is an array of all the field values. The $(NF) variable is defined to be the number of fields.

Next, the cases are evaluated in order. For each case, if the regular expression pattern_i matches the record $0, then body_i is evaluated. If the body ends in an export, the state is passed to the next clause. Otherwise the value is discarded. If the regular expression contains $$r$$ expression, those expression override the fields $1, $2, .... For example, here is an awk function to print the text between two delimiters \begin{<name>} and \end{<name>}, where the <name> must belong to a set passed as an argument to the filter function.  filter(names) = print = false awk(Awk.in) case$"^\\end\{$$[[:alpha:]]+$$\}"
if $(mem$1, $(names)) print = false export export default if$(print)
println($0) case$"^\\begin\{$$[[:alpha:]]+$$\}"
print = $(mem$1, $(names)) export  Note, if you want to redirect the output to a file, the easiest way is to redefine the stdout variable. The stdout variable is scoped the same way as other variables, so this definition does not affect the meaning of stdout outside the filter function.  filter(names) = stdout =$(fopen file.out, w)
awk(Awk.in)
...
close($(stdout))  Options. b “Break” when evaluating cases. Only the first case that matches will be selected. The break function can be used to abort the loop, exiting the awk function immediately. ### 10.11.6 fsubst  fsubst(files) case pattern1 [options] body1 case pattern2 [options] body2 ... default bodyd  The fsubst function provides a sed(1)-like substitution function. Similar to awk, if fsubst is called with no arguments, the input is taken from stdin. If arguments are provided, each specifies an InChannel, or the name of a file for input. The RS variable defines a regular expression that determines a record separator, The default value of RS is the regular expression \r|\n|\r\n. The fsubst function reads the file one record at a time. For each record, the cases are evaluated in order. Each case defines a substitution from a substring matching the pattern to replacement text defined by the body. Currently, there is only one option: g. If specified, each clause specifies a global replacement, and all instances of the pattern define a substitution. Otherwise, the substitution is applied only once. Output can be redirected by redefining the stdout variable. For example, the following program replaces all occurrences of an expression word. with its capitalized form.  section stdout =$(fopen Subst.out, w)
fsubst(Subst.in)
case $"\<$$[[:alnum:]]+$$\." g value$(capitalize $1). close($(stdout))


### 10.11.7  lex

   lex(files)
case pattern1
body1
case pattern2
body2
...
default
bodyd


The lex function provides a simple lexical-style scanner function. The input is a sequence of files or channels. The cases specify regular expressions. Each time the input is read, the regular expression that matches the longest prefix of the input is selected, and the body is evaluated.

If two clauses both match the same input, the last one is selected for execution. The default case matches the regular expression .; you probably want to place it first in the pattern list.

If the body end with an export directive, the state is passed to the next clause.

For example, the following program collects all occurrences of alphanumeric words in an input file.

    collect-words(files) =
words[] =
lex($(files)) default # empty case$"[[:alnum:]]+" g
words[] += $0 export value$(words)


The default case, if one exists, matches single characters. Since

It is an error if the input does not match any of the regular expressions.

The break function can be used to abort the loop.

### 10.11.8  lex-search

   lex-search(files)
case pattern1
body1
case pattern2
body2
...
default
bodyd


The lex-search function is like the lex function, but input that does not match any of the regular expressions is skipped. If the clauses include a default case, then the default matches any skipped text.

For example, the following program collects all occurrences of alphanumeric words in an input file, skipping any other text.

    collect-words($(files)) = words[] = lex-search($(files))
default
eprintln(Skipped $0) case$"[[:alnum:]]+" g
words[] += $0 export  The default case, if one exists, matches single characters. Since It is an error if the input does not match any of the regular expressions. The break function can be used to abort the loop. ### 10.11.9 Lexer The Omake_lexer.Lexer object defines a facility for lexical analysis, similar to the lex(1) and flex(1) programs. In omake, lexical analyzers can be constructed dynamically by extending the Omake_lexer.Lexer class. A lexer definition consists of a set of directives specified with method calls, and set of clauses specified as rules. For example, consider the following lexer definition, which is intended for lexical analysis of simple arithmetic expressions for a desktop calculator.  lexer1. = extends$(Omake_lexer.Lexer)

other: .
eprintln(Illegal character: $* ) lex() white:$"[[:space:]]+"
lex()

op: $"[-+*/()]" switch$*
case +
Token.unit($(loc), plus) case - Token.unit($(loc), minus)
case *
Token.unit($(loc), mul) case / Token.unit($(loc), div)
case $"(" Token.unit($(loc), lparen)
case $")" Token.unit($(loc), rparen)

number: $"[[:digit:]]+" Token.pair($(loc), exp, $(int$* ))

eof: $"\'" Token.unit($(loc), eof)


This program defines an object lexer1 the extends the Omake_lexer.Lexer object, which defines lexing environment.

The remainder of the definition consists of a set of clauses, each with a method name before the colon; a regular expression after the colon; and in this case, a body. The body is optional, if it is not specified, the method with the given name should already exist in the lexer definition.

NB The clause that matches the longest prefix of the input is selected. If two clauses match the same input prefix, then the last one is selected. This is unlike most standard lexers, but makes more sense for extensible grammars.

The first clause matches any input that is not matched by the other clauses. In this case, an error message is printed for any unknown character, and the input is skipped. Note that this clause is selected only if no other clause matches.

The second clause is responsible for ignoring white space. If whitespace is found, it is ignored, and the lexer is called recursively.

The third clause is responsible for the arithmetic operators. It makes use of the Token object, which defines three fields: a loc field that represents the source location; a name; and a value.

The lexer defines the loc variable to be the location of the current lexeme in each of the method bodies, so we can use that value to create the tokens.

The Token.unit($(loc), name) method constructs a new Token object with the given name, and a default value. The number clause matches nonnegative integer constants. The Token.pair($(loc), name, value) constructs a token with the given name and value.

Omake_lexer.Lexer object operate on InChannel objects. The method lexer1.lex-channel(channel) reads the next token from the channel argument.

### 10.11.10  Omake_lexer.Lexer matching

During lexical analysis, clauses are selected by longest match. That is, the clause that matches the longest sequence of input characters is chosen for evaluation. If no clause matches, the lexer raises a RuntimeException. If more than one clause matches the same amount of input, the first one is chosen for evaluation.

### 10.11.11  Extending lexer definitions

Suppose we wish to augment the lexer example so that it ignores comments. We will define comments as any text that begins with the string (*, ends with *), and comments may be nested.

One convenient way to do this is to define a separate lexer just to skip comments.

   lex-comment. =
extends $(Omake_lexer.Lexer) level = 0 other: . lex() term:$"[*][)]"
if $(not$(eq $(level), 0)) level =$(sub $(level), 1) lex() next:$"[(][*]"
level = $(add$(level), 1)
lex()

eof: $"\'" eprintln(Unterminated comment)  This lexer contains a field level that keeps track of the nesting level. On encountering a (* string, it increments the level, and for *), it decrements the level if nonzero, and continues. Next, we need to modify our previous lexer to skip comments. We can do this by extending the lexer object lexer1 that we just created.  lexer1. += comment:$"[(][*]"
lex-comment.lex-channel($(channel)) lex()  The body for the comment clause calls the lex-comment lexer when a comment is encountered, and continues lexing when that lexer returns. ### 10.11.12 Threading the lexer object Clause bodies may also end with an export directive. In this case the lexer object itself is used as the returned token. If used with the Parser object below, the lexer should define the loc, name and value fields in each export clause. Each time the Parser calls the lexer, it calls it with the lexer returned from the previous lex invocation. ### 10.11.13 Parser The Parser object provides a facility for syntactic analysis based on context-free grammars. Parser objects are specified as a sequence of directives, specified with method calls; and productions, specified as rules. For example, let’s finish building the desktop calculator started in the Lexer example.  parser1. = extends$(Parser)

#
# Use the main lexer
#
lexer = $(lexer1) # # Precedences, in ascending order # left(plus minus) left(mul div) right(uminus) # # A program # start(prog) prog: exp eof return$1

#
# Simple arithmetic expressions
#
exp: minus exp :prec: uminus
neg($2) exp: exp plus exp add($1, $3) exp: exp minus exp sub($1, $3) exp: exp mul exp mul($1, $3) exp: exp div exp div($1, $3) exp: lparen exp rparen return$2


Parsers are defined as extensions of the Parser class. A Parser object must have a lexer field. The lexer is not required to be a Lexer object, but it must provide a lexer.lex() method that returns a token object with name and value fields. For this example, we use the lexer1 object that we defined previously.

The next step is to define precedences for the terminal symbols. The precedences are defined with the left, right, and nonassoc methods in order of increasing precedence.

The grammar must have at least one start symbol, declared with the start method.

Next, the productions in the grammar are listed as rules. The name of the production is listed before the colon, and a sequence of variables is listed to the right of the colon. The body is a semantic action to be evaluated when the production is recognized as part of the input.

In this example, these are the productions for the arithmetic expressions recognized by the desktop calculator. The semantic action performs the calculation. The variables $1,$2, ... correspond to the values associated with each of the variables on the right-hand-side of the production.

### 10.11.14  Calling the parser

The parser is called with the $(parser1.parse-channel start, channel) or $(parser1.parse-file start, file) functions. The start argument is the start symbol, and the channel or file is the input to the parser.

### 10.11.15  Parsing control

The parser generator generates a pushdown automation based on LALR(1) tables. As usual, if the grammar is ambiguous, this may generate shift/reduce or reduce/reduce conflicts. These conflicts are printed to standard output when the automaton is generated.

By default, the automaton is not constructed until the parser is first used.

The build(debug) method forces the construction of the automaton. While not required, it is wise to finish each complete parser with a call to the build(debug) method. If the debug variable is set, this also prints with parser table together with any conflicts.

The loc variable is defined within action bodies, and represents the input range for all tokens on the right-hand-side of the production.

### 10.11.16  Extending parsers

Parsers may also be extended by inheritance. For example, let’s extend the grammar so that it also recognizes the << and >> shift operations.

First, we extend the lexer so that it recognizes these tokens. This time, we choose to leave lexer1 intact, instead of using the += operator.

   lexer2. =
extends $(lexer1) lsl:$"<<"
Token.unit($(loc), lsl) asr:$">>"
Token.unit($(loc), asr)  Next, we extend the parser to handle these new operators. We intend that the bitwise operators have lower precedence than the other arithmetic operators. The two-argument form of the left method accomplishes this.  parser2. = extends$(parser1)

left(plus, lsl lsr asr)

lexer = $(lexer2) exp: exp lsl exp lsl($1, $3) exp: exp asr exp asr($1, $3)  In this case, we use the new lexer lexer2, and we add productions for the new shift operations. ### 10.11.17 Passwd The Passwd object represents an entry in the system’s user database. It contains the following fields. pw_name: the login name. pw_passwd: the encrypted password. pw_uid: user id of the user. pw_gid: group id of the user. pw_gecos: the user name or comment field. pw_dir: the user’s home directory. pw_shell: the user’s default shell. Not all the fields will have meaning on all operating systems. ### 10.11.18 getpwnam, getpwuid $(getpwnam name...) : Passwd
name : String
$(getpwuid uid...) : Passwd uid : Int raises RuntimeException  The getpwnam function looks up an entry by the user’s login and the getpwuid function looks up an entry by user’s numerical id (uid). If no entry is found, an exception will be raised. ### 10.11.19 getpwents $(getpwents) : Array


The getpwents function returns an array of Passwd objects, one for every user fund in the system user database. Note that depending on the operating system and on the setup of the user database, the returned array may be incomplete or even empty.

### 10.11.20  Group

The Group object represents an entry in the system’s user group database. It contains the following fields.

gr_name: the group name.
gr_group: the encrypted password.
gr_gid: group id of the group.
gr_mem: the group member’s user names.

Not all the fields will have meaning on all operating systems.

### 10.11.21  getgrnam, getgrgid

    $(getgrnam name...) : Group name : String$(getgrgid gid...) : Group
gid : Int
raises RuntimeException


The getgrnam function looks up a group entry by the group’s name and the getgrgid function looks up an entry by groups’s numerical id (gid). If no entry is found, an exception will be raised.



$(prompt-invisible-end) : String  The prompt-invisible-begin and prompt-invisible-end functions return the escape sequences that must used to mark the “invisible” sections of the shell prompt (such as various escape sequences). ### 10.11.26 prompt-invisible $(prompt-invisible s) : Sequence


The prompt-invisible will wrap its argument with $(prompt-invisible-begin) and $(prompt-invisible-end). All the ‘invisible” sections of the shell prompt (such as various escape sequences) must be wrapped this way.

$(localtime time) : tm time : Float  Convert the time in seconds since the Unix epoch to calendar format. The function gmtime assumes UTC (Coordinated Universal Time); the function localtime uses the local time zone. ### 10.11.30 mktime, normalize-time $(mktime tm) : Float
\$(normalize-time tm) : Tm
tm : Tm


Convert the calendar time to time in seconds since the Unix epoch. Assumes the local time zone.

The fields tm_wday, tm_mday, tm_yday are ignored. The other components are not restricted to their normal ranges and will be normalized as needed.

The function normalize-time normalizes the calendar time. The returned object contains an additional field tm_time : Float that represnets the time in seconds since the Unix epoch (the same value returned by mktime`).

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