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Module Pxp_document


module Pxp_document: sig .. end
Tree representation of XML documents


The structure of document trees



Please have a look at the separate text Intro_trees.

Interface





The node type



type node_type =
| T_element of string (*An element node with this element type*)
| T_data (*A data node*)
| T_super_root (*The super root node*)
| T_pinstr of string (*A processing instruction with this target*)
| T_comment (*A comment*)
| T_none (*Sometimes used if the nodes are non-standard*)
| T_attribute of string (*An attribute node for this attribute name*)
| T_namespace of string (*A namespace node for this normalized prefix*)
This type enumerates the possible node types:
  • T_element name: The node is an element and has element type name
  • T_data: The node is a data node
  • T_super_root: The node is a super root node
  • T_pinstr name: The node contains a processing instruction with target name
  • T_comment: The node is a comment
  • T_attribute name: The node contains an attribute called name
  • T_namespace prefix: The node identifies a namespace for the normalized prefix
  • T_none: This is a "bottom value" used if there is no reasonable type.
Note that attribute and namespace nodes can only live outside the regular tree, and are only returned by special methods.

type data_node_classification =
| CD_normal
| CD_other
| CD_empty
| CD_ignorable
| CD_error of exn
This type enumerates the result values of the method classify_data_node:
  • CD_normal: Adding n does not violate any validation constraint
  • CD_other: n is not a data node
  • CD_empty: The element obj is declared as EMTPY, and n contains the empty string. It is allowed to append n but it does not make sense
  • CD_ignorable: The element obj is declared such that it is forbidden to put character data into it. However, the node n only contains white space which is allowed as an exception to this rule. This means that it is allowed to append n but n would not contain any information except formatting hints.
  • CD_error e: It is an error to append n. The exception e, usually a Validation_error, contains details about the problem.

class type ['a] extension = object .. end
The extension is, as the name says, the extensible part of the nodes.
class type ['a node #extension as 'a] node = object .. end
The class type node defines the interface of the nodes that are part of XML document trees.

Implementations of nodes


class ['a node #extension as 'a] data_impl : 'a -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes data nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] element_impl : 'a -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes element nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] comment_impl : 'a -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes comment nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] pinstr_impl : 'a -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes processing instruction nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] super_root_impl : 'a -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes super root nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] attribute_impl : element:string -> name:string -> Pxp_types.att_value -> Pxp_dtd.dtd -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes attribute nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] namespace_impl : string -> string -> Pxp_dtd.dtd -> ['a] node
Namespace objects are only used to represent the namespace declarations occurring in the attribute lists of elements.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] namespace_element_impl : 'a -> ['a] node
This class is an implementation of node which realizes element nodes.
class ['a node #extension as 'a] namespace_attribute_impl : element:string -> name:string -> Pxp_types.att_value -> Pxp_dtd.dtd -> ['a] node
the namespace-aware implementation of attribute nodes.

Useful accessor functions


val pinstr : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
Pxp_dtd.proc_instruction
pinstr n: Returns the processing instruction contained in a processing instruction node. This function raises Invalid_argument if invoked for a different node type than T_pinstr.
val attribute_name : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
string
attribute_name n Returns the name of the attribute contained in an attribute node. Raises Invalid_argument if n does not have node type T_attribute.
val attribute_value : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
Pxp_types.att_value
attribute_value n: Returns the value of the attribute contained in an attribute node. Raises Invalid_argument if n does not have node type T_attribute.
val attribute_string_value : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
string
attribute_string_value n: Returns the string value of the attribute contained in an attribute node. Raises Invalid_argument if n does not have node type T_attribute.
val namespace_normprefix : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
string
Returns the normprefix of a namespace node. Raises Invalid_argument if n does not have node type T_namespace.
val namespace_display_prefix : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
string
Returns the display prefix of a namespace node . Raises Invalid_argument if n does not have node type T_namespace.
val namespace_uri : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
string
Retruns the namespace URI of a namespace node . Raises Invalid_argument if n does not have node type T_namespace.

Document model specifications


type 'a node #extension as 'a spec 
The abstract data type of the document model specification. These values define objects of which classes are actually created for the various types of nodes.
val make_spec_from_mapping : ?super_root_exemplar:('a node #extension as 'a)
node ->
?comment_exemplar:'a node ->
?default_pinstr_exemplar:'a node ->
?pinstr_mapping:(string, 'a node) Hashtbl.t ->
data_exemplar:'a node ->
default_element_exemplar:'a node ->
element_mapping:(string, 'a node) Hashtbl.t ->
unit -> 'a spec
make_spec_from_mapping ~super_root_exemplar ~comment_exemplar ~default_pinstr_exemplar ~pinstr_mapping ~data_exemplar ~default_element_exemplar ~element_mapping (): Creates a spec from the arguments. Some arguments are optional, some arguments are mandatory.
  • super_root_exemplar: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new super root nodes. This exemplar is optional.
  • comment_exemplar: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new comment nodes. This exemplar is optional.
  • pinstr_exemplar: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new processing instruction nodes by a hashtable mapping target names to exemplars. This hashtable is optional.
  • default_pinstr_exemplar: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new processing instruction nodes. This exemplar will be used for targets that are not contained in the ~pinstr_exemplar hashtable. This exemplar is optional.
  • data_exemplar: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new data nodes. This exemplar is mandatory.
  • element_mapping: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new element nodes by a hashtable mapping element types to exemplars. This hashtable is mandatory (but may be empty).
  • default_element_exemplar: Specifies the exemplar to be used for new element nodes. This exemplar will be used for element types that are not contained in the ~element_mapping hashtable. This exemplar is mandatory.

val make_spec_from_alist : ?super_root_exemplar:('a node #extension as 'a)
node ->
?comment_exemplar:'a node ->
?default_pinstr_exemplar:'a node ->
?pinstr_alist:(string * 'a node) list ->
data_exemplar:'a node ->
default_element_exemplar:'a node ->
element_alist:(string * 'a node) list ->
unit -> 'a spec
make_spec_from_alist ~super_root_exemplar ~comment_exemplar ~default_pinstr_exemplar ~pinstr_alist ~data_exemplar ~default_element_exemplar ~element_alist (): Creates a spec from the arguments. This is a convenience function for make_spec_from_mapping; instead of requiring hashtables the function allows it to pass associative lists.
val get_data_exemplar : ('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
'a node
val get_element_exemplar : ('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
string -> (string * string) list -> 'a node
val get_super_root_exemplar : ('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
'a node
val get_comment_exemplar : ('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
'a node
val get_pinstr_exemplar : ('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.proc_instruction -> 'a node
These functions just return the exemplars (or raise Not_found).

Creating nodes from specifications


val create_data_node : ('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.dtd -> string -> 'a node
create_data_node spec dtd datastring: Creates a new data node from the exemplar contained in spec. The new node contains datastring and is connected with the dtd.
val create_element_node : ?name_pool_for_attribute_values:Pxp_types.pool ->
?entity_id:Pxp_types.entity_id ->
?position:string * int * int ->
?valcheck:bool ->
?att_values:(string * Pxp_types.att_value) list ->
('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.dtd -> string -> (string * string) list -> 'a node
create_element_node ~name_pool_for_attribute_values ~position ~valcheck ~att_values spec dtd eltype att_list: Creates a new element node from the exemplar(s) contained in spec:
  • The new node will be connected to the passed dtd.
  • The new node will have the element type eltype.
  • The attributes of the new node will be the concatenation of att_list and att_values; att_list passes attribute values as strings while att_values passes attribute values as type att_value
  • The source position is set to ~position (if passed)
  • The ~name_pool_for_attribute_values will be used, if passed.
  • If ~valcheck = true (the default), the attribute list is immediately validated. If ~valcheck = false, the validation is left out; in this case you can pass any element type and and any attributes, and it does not matter whether and how they are declared.
Even in well-formedness mode, it is ok to pass valcheck=true as this mode is implemented by weakening the validation constraints in the DTD object. See Parsing in well-formedness mode for explanations.
val create_super_root_node : ?entity_id:Pxp_types.entity_id ->
?position:string * int * int ->
('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.dtd -> 'a node
create_super_root_node ~position spec dtd: Creates a new super root node from the exemplar contained in spec. The new node is connected to dtd, and the position triple is set to ~position.

The function fails if there is no super root exemplar in spec.

val create_comment_node : ?entity_id:Pxp_types.entity_id ->
?position:string * int * int ->
('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.dtd -> string -> 'a node
create_comment_node ~position spec dtd commentstring: Creates a new comment node from the exemplar contained in spec. The new node is connected to dtd, and the position triple is set to ~position. The contents of the node are set to commentstring.

The function fails if there is no comment exemplar in spec.

val create_pinstr_node : ?entity_id:Pxp_types.entity_id ->
?position:string * int * int ->
('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.dtd -> Pxp_dtd.proc_instruction -> 'a node
create_pinstr_node ~position spec dtd pi: Creates a new processing instruction node from the exemplar contained in spec. The new node is connected to dtd, and the position triple is set to ~position. The contents of the node are set to pi.

The function fails if there is no processing instruction exemplar in spec.

val create_no_node : ?entity_id:Pxp_types.entity_id ->
?position:string * int * int ->
('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
Pxp_dtd.dtd -> 'a node
Creates a T_none node with limited functionality. Important: This function is conceptually broken and may be dropped in the future.

Document order



The functions compare and ord_compare implement the so-called "document order". The basic principle is that the nodes are linearly ordered by their occurence in the textual XML representation of the tree. While this is clear for element nodes, data nodes, comments, and processing instructions, a more detailed definition is necessary for the other node types. In particular, attribute nodes of an element node occur before any regular subnode of the element, and namespace nodes of that element occur even before the attribute nodes. So the order of nodes of
 <sample a1="5" a2="6"><subnode/></sample>  

 is
 
  1. element "sample"
  2. attribute "a1"
  3. attribute "a2"
  4. element "subnode"
Note that the order of the attributes of the same element is unspecified, so "a2" may alternatively be ordered before "a1". If there were namespace nodes, they would occur between 1 and 2.

If there is a super root node, it will be handled as the very first node.

val compare : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
'a node -> int
compare n1 n2: Returns -1 if n1 occurs before n2, or +1 if n1 occurs after n2, or 0 if both nodes are identical. If the nodes are unrelated (do not have a common ancestor), the result is undefined (Note: this case is different from ord_compare). This test is rather slow, but it works even if the XML tree changes dynamically (in contrast to ord_compare below).
type 'a node #extension as 'a ord_index 
The type of ordinal indexes.
val create_ord_index : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
'a ord_index
create_ord_index startnode: Creates an ordinal index for the subtree starting at startnode. This index assigns to every node an ordinal number (beginning with 0) such that nodes are numbered upon the order of the first character in the XML representation (document order). Note that the index is not automatically updated when the tree is modified.
val ord_number : ('a node #extension as 'a) ord_index ->
'a node -> int
Returns the ordinal number of the node, or raises Not_found. Note that attribute nodes and namespace nodes are treated specially: All attribute nodes for a certain element node have the _same_ ordinal index. All namespace nodes for a certain element node have the _same_ ordinal index.

(So ord_number x = ord_number y does not imply x == y for these nodes. However, this is true for the other node types.) It is not recommended to work with the ordinal number directly but to call ord_compare which already handles the special cases.

val ord_compare : ('a node #extension as 'a) ord_index ->
'a node -> 'a node -> int
ord_compare idx n1 n2: Compares two nodes like compare: Returns -1 if n1 occurs before n2, or +1 if n1 occurs after n2, or 0 if both nodes are identical. If one of the nodes does not occur in the ordinal index, Not_found is raised. (Note that this is a different behaviour than what compare would do.)

This test is much faster than compare.


Document iterators



General note: The iterators ignore attribute and namespace nodes
val find : ?deeply:bool ->
(('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
bool) ->
'a node -> 'a node
find ~deeply f startnode Searches the first node in the tree below startnode for which the predicate f is true, and returns it. Raises Not_found if there is no such node.

By default, ~deeply=false. In this case, only the children of startnode are searched.

If passing ~deeply=true, the children are searched recursively (depth-first search). Note that even in this case startnode itself is not checked.

Attribute and namespace nodes are ignored.

val find_all : ?deeply:bool ->
(('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
bool) ->
'a node -> 'a node list
find_all ~deeply f startnode: Searches all nodes in the tree below startnode for which the predicate f is true, and returns them.

By default, ~deeply=false. In this case, only the children of startnode are searched.

If passing ~deeply=true, the children are searched recursively (depth-first search). Note that even in this case startnode itself is not checked.

Attribute and namespace nodes are ignored.

val find_element : ?deeply:bool ->
string ->
('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
'a node
find_element ~deeply eltype startnode: Searches the first element in the tree below startnode that has the element type eltype, and returns it. Raises Not_found if there is no such node.

By default, ~deeply=false. In this case, only the children of startnode are searched.

If passing ~deeply=true, the children are searched recursively (depth-first search). Note that even in this case startnode itself is not checked.

val find_all_elements : ?deeply:bool ->
string ->
('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
'a node list
find_all_elements ~deeply eltype startnode: Searches all elements in the tree below startnode having the element type eltype, and returns them.

By default, ~deeply=false. In this case, only the children of startnode are searched.

If passing ~deeply=true, the children are searched recursively (depth-first search). Note that even in this case startnode itself is not checked.

exception Skip
This exception can be used in the functions passed to map_tree, map_tree_sibl, iter_tree, and iter_tree_sibl to skip the current node, and to proceed with the next node. See these function for details.
val map_tree : pre:(('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
('b node #extension as 'b) node) ->
?post:('b node -> 'b node) ->
'a node -> 'b node
map_tree ~pre ~post startnode Maps the tree beginning at startnode to a second tree using the following algorithm.

startnode and the whole tree below it are recursively traversed. After entering a node, the function ~pre is called. The result of this function must be a new node; it must not have children nor a parent. For example, you can pass

~pre:(fun n -> n # orphaned_flat_clone)

    to copy the original node. After that, the children are processed
    in the same way (from left to right) resulting in a list of
    mapped children. These are added to the mapped node as its 
    children.

Now, the ~post function is invoked with the mapped node as argument, and the result is the result of the function (~post should return a root node, too; if not specified, the identity is the ~post function).

Both ~pre and ~post may raise Skip which causes that the node is left out (i.e. the mapped tree does neither contain the node nor any children of the node). If the top node is skipped, the exception Not_found is raised.

For example, the following piece of code duplicates a tree, but removes all comment nodes:

 map_tree ~pre:(fun n -> if n # node_type = T_comment then raise Skip else n # orphaned_flat_clone) startnode 

Attribute and namespace nodes are ignored.

val map_tree_sibl : pre:(('a node #extension as 'a) node
option ->
'a node ->
'a node option ->
('b node #extension as 'b) node) ->
?post:('b node option ->
'b node ->
'b node option -> 'b node) ->
'a node -> 'b node
map_tree_sibl ~pre ~post startnode: Maps the tree beginning at startnode to a second tree using the following algorithm.

startnode and the whole tree below it are recursively traversed. After entering a node, the function ~pre is called with three arguments: some previous node, the current node, and some next node. The previous and the next node may not exist because the current node is the first or the last in the current list of nodes. In this case, None is passed as previous or next node, resp. The result of this function invocation must be a new node; it must not have children nor a parent. For example, you can pass

~pre:(fun prev n next -> n # orphaned_flat_clone)

    to copy the original node. After that, the children are processed
    in the same way (from left to right) resulting in a list of
    mapped children. 

Now, the ~post function is applied to the list of mapped children resulting in a list of postprocessed children. (Note: this part works rather differently than map_tree.) ~post has three arguments: some previous child, the current child, and some next child. The previous and the next child are None if non-existing. The postprocessed children are appended to the mapped node resulting in the mapped tree.

Both ~pre and ~post may raise Skip which causes that the node is left out (i.e. the mapped tree does neither contain the node nor any children of the node). If the top node is skipped, the exception Not_found is raised.

Attribute and namespace nodes are ignored.

val iter_tree : ?pre:(('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
unit) ->
?post:('a node -> unit) -> 'a node -> unit
iter_tree ~pre ~post startnode: Iterates over the tree beginning at startnode using the following algorithm.

startnode and the whole tree below it are recursively traversed. After entering a node, the function ~pre is called. Now, the children are processed recursively. Finally, the ~post function is invoked.

The ~pre function may raise Skip causing that the children and the invocation of the ~post function are skipped. If the ~post function raises Skip nothing special happens.

Attribute and namespace nodes are ignored.

val iter_tree_sibl : ?pre:(('a node #extension as 'a) node
option -> 'a node -> 'a node option -> unit) ->
?post:('a node option ->
'a node -> 'a node option -> unit) ->
'a node -> unit
iter_tree_sibl ~pre ~post startnode: Iterates over the tree beginning at startnode using the following algorithm.

startnode and the whole tree below it are recursively traversed. After entering a node, the function ~pre is called with three arguments: some previous node, the current node, and some next node. The previous and the next node may be None if non-existing. Now, the children are processed recursively. Finally, the ~post function is invoked with the same three arguments.

The ~pre function may raise Skip causing that the children and the invocation of the ~post function are skipped. If the ~post function raises Skip nothing special happens.

Attribute and namespace nodes are ignored.


Whitespace


type stripping_mode = [ `Disabled | `Strip_one | `Strip_one_lf | `Strip_seq ] 
The different ways how to strip whitespace from a single data node:
  • `Strip_one_lf: If there is a linefeed character at the beginning/at the end, it will be removed. If there are more linefeed characters, only the first/the last is removed. (This is the SGML rule to strip whitespace.)
  • `Strip_one: If there is a whitespace character at the beginning/at the end, it will be removed. If there are more whitespace characters, only the first/the last is removed. Whitespace characters are space, newline, carriage return, and tab.
  • `Strip_seq: All whitespace characters at the beginning/at the end are removed.
  • `Disabled: Do not strip whitespace.

val strip_whitespace : ?force:bool ->
?left:stripping_mode ->
?right:stripping_mode ->
?delete_empty_nodes:bool ->
('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
unit
strip_whitespace ~force ~left ~right ~delete_empty_nodes startnode: Modifies the passed tree in-place by the following rules:
  • In general, whitespace stripping is not applied to nodes inside an xml:space="preserve" region, unless ~force:true is passed to the function (default is ~force:false). Only if whitespace stripping is allowed, the following rules are carried out. Note that the detection of regions with preserved whitespace takes the parent nodes of the passed startnode into account.
  • If applied to a data node, whitespace at the beginning of the node is removed according to ~left, and whitespace at the end of the node is removed according to ~right.
  • If applied to an element, whitespace at the beginning of the first data subnode is removed according to ~left, and whitespace at the end of the last data subnode is removed according to ~right. Furthermore, these rules are recursively applied to all subelements (but not to other node types).
  • If applied to the super root node, this node is treated as if it were an element.
  • Whitespace of other node types is left as-is, as whitespace occuring in attributes.
  • Option ~delete_empty_nodes (default true): If data nodes become empty after removal of whitespace, they are deleted from the XML tree.
Defaults:
  • ~force:false
  • ~left:`Disabled
  • ~right:`Disabled


Normalization


val normalize : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
unit
Normalizes the tree denoted by startnode such that neither empty data nodes nor adjacent data nodes exist. Normalization works in-place.

The tree parsers always return normalized trees. This function may still be useful to enforce normalized trees after modifying them.


Validation


val validate : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
unit
validate startnode: Validates the tree denoted by startnode. In contrast to startnode # validate() this function validates recursively.

The document container


class ['a node #extension as 'a] document : ?swarner:Pxp_types.symbolic_warnings -> Pxp_types.collect_warnings -> Pxp_types.rep_encoding -> object .. end
Documents are used to represent closed documents that may consist of an XML declaration, a DTD, and a node tree.

Printers for the toploop



These functions are intented to be used with the #install_printer directive of the toploop
val print_node : ('a node #extension as 'a) node ->
unit
val print_doc : ('a node #extension as 'a) document ->
unit

Conversion between trees and event streams



We use the metaphor of "solid" XML for trees and other randomly accessible data structures representing XML, and the metaphor of "liquid" XML for event streams describing XML
exception Error_event of exn
The event stream contains an E_error event
type 'a node #extension as 'a solid_xml = [ `Document of 'a document | `Node of 'a node ] 
Solid XML can be a (sub)tree `Node n, or a closed `Document
val solidify : ?dtd:Pxp_dtd.dtd ->
Pxp_types.config ->
('a node #extension as 'a) spec ->
(unit -> Pxp_types.event option) -> 'a solid_xml
Reads the event stream by calling the unit->event function, and creates a node tree according to config, dtd, spec.

The event stream may be either:

  • A document event stream (as generated by `Entry_document). In this case `Document d is returned.
  • A content event stream with top-level element (as generated by `Entry_element_content). In this case `Node n is returned.
Note that there is no way to solidify a content event stream that does not have a single top-level element (i.e. as parsed by `Entry_content). An attempt will result in an exception.

Document streams contain a DTD. The found DTD is used for the node tree. Content streams, on the contrary, do not contain DTDs. In this case, an empty DTD is created (in well-formedness mode).

The dtd argument overrides any DTD, no matter whether found in the stream or freshly created.

If the DTD allows validation, the returned tree is validated.

The data nodes are not normalized unless the arriving data events are already normalized. To get this effect, filter the stream with Pxp_event.norm_cdata_filter before calling solidify.

Ignorable whitespace is not automatically removed. To get this effect, filter the stream with Pxp_event.drop_ignorable_whitespace_filter before calling solidify.

The uniqueness of ID attributes is not checked.

val liquefy : ?omit_end:bool ->
?omit_positions:bool ->
('a node #extension as 'a) solid_xml ->
'b -> Pxp_types.event option
The converse of solidify: The passed node or document is transformed into an event stream.

  • omit_end: If true, the E_end_of_stream event is omitted at the end. Useful to concatenate several streams. Default: false.
  • omit_positions: If true, no E_position events are generated. Default:false.



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